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Pyrotechnic Compounds

Colors in fireworks are usually generated by pyrotechnic stars—usually just called stars—which produce intense light when ignited. Stars contain five basic types of ingredients.

  • fuel which allows the star to burn
  • An oxidizer—a compound which produces (usually) oxygen to support the combustion of the fuel
  • Color-producing chemicals
  • binder which holds the pellet together.
  • chlorine donor which provides chlorine to strengthen the color of the flame. Sometimes the oxidizer can serve this purpose.

Some of the more common color-producing compounds are tabulated here. The color of a compound in a firework will be the same as its color in a flame test (shown at right). Not all compounds that produce a colored flame are appropriate for coloring fireworks, however. Ideal colorants will produce a pure, intense color when present in moderate concentration.

ColorMetalExample compounds
RedStrontium (intense red)

Lithium (medium red)

SrCO3 (strontium carbonate)

Li2CO3 (lithium carbonate) LiCl (lithium chloride)

OrangeCalciumCaCl2 (calcium chloride)
YellowSodiumNaNO3 (sodium nitrate)
GreenBariumBaCl2 (barium chloride)
BlueCopperCuCl2 (copper chloride), at low temperature
IndigoCesiumCsNO3 (cesium nitrate)

Rubidium (violet-red)

KNO3 (potassium nitrate)

RbNO3 (rubidium nitrate)

GoldCharcoal, iron, or lampblack
WhiteTitanium, aluminum, beryllium, or magnesium powders

The brightest stars, often called Mag Stars, are fueled by aluminium. Magnesium is rarely used in the fireworks industry due to its lack of ability to form a protective oxide layer. Often an alloy of both metals called magnalium is used.

Many of the chemicals used in the manufacture of fireworks are non-toxic, while many more have some degree of toxicity, can cause skin sensitivity, or exist in dust form and are thereby inhalation hazards. Still others are poisons if directly ingested or inhaled.

Abstract reference of chemicals used in fireworks industry

The following table is an educational guideline for the chemistry of fireworks.

SymbolNameFireworks Usage
AluminumAluminum is used to produce silver and white flames and sparks. It is a common component of sparklers.
BariumBarium is used to create green colors in fireworks, and it can also help stabilize other volatile elements.
CarbonCarbon is one of the main components of black powder, which is used as a propellent in fireworks. Carbon provides the fuel for a firework. Common forms include carbon black, sugar, or starch.
CalciumCalcium is used to deepen firework colors. Calcium salts produce orange fireworks.
ChlorineChlorine is an important component of many oxidizers in fireworks. Several of the metal salts that produce colors contain chlorine.
CesiumCesium compounds help to oxidize firework mixtures. Cesium compounds produce an indigo color in fireworks.
CopperCopper produces blue-green colors in fireworks and halides of copper are use to make shades of blue.
IronIron is used to produce sparks. The heat of the metal determines the color of the sparks.
PotassiumPotassium compounds help to oxidize firework mixtures. Potassium nitrate, potassium chlorate, and potassium perchlorate are all important oxidizers. The potassium content can impart a violet-pink color to the sparks.
LithiumLithium is a metal that is used to impart a red color to fireworks. Lithium carbonate, in particular, is a common colorant.
MagnesiumMagnesium burns a very bright white, so it is used to add white sparks or improve the overall brilliance of a firework.
SodiumSodium imparts a yellow color to fireworks, however, the color is often so bright that it frequently masks other, less intense colors.
OxygenFireworks include oxidizers, which are substances that produce oxygen in order for burning to occur. The oxidizers are usually nitrates, chlorates, or perchlorates. Sometimes the same substance is used to provide oxygen and color.
PhosphorusPhosphorus burns spontaneously in air and is also responsible for some glow in the dark effects. It may be a component of a firework's fuel.
RubidiumRubidium compounds help to oxidize firework mixtures. Rubidium compounds produce a violet-red color in fireworks.
SulfurSulfur is a component of black powder, and as such, it is found in a firework's propellant/fuel.
AntimonyAntimony is used to create firework glitter effects.
StrontiumStrontium salts impart a red color to fireworks. Strontium compounds are also important for stabilizing fireworks mixtures.
TitaniumTitanium metal can be burned as powder or flakes to produce silver sparks.
ZincZinc is a bluish white metal that is used to create smoke effects for fireworks and other pyrotechnic devices.

(Source Wikipedia)